Introduction Examination of Water

Introduction Examination of Water

Water is an essential and indispensable element for life on Earth. However, due to various human activities and natural processes, water sources are becoming increasingly polluted and contaminated. This poses a significant threat to the health and well-being of both humans and the environment. Therefore, it is essential to regularly monitor and examine the quality of water to ensure its safety for consumption and other uses. In this article, we will discuss the importance of water examination, the various methods used, and the parameters that are tested to determine the quality of water. This examination is crucial in identifying potential risks and taking necessary actions to protect and preserve our water sources.

Physical Examination of Water

Physical Examination of Water

Physical examination of water is a process of assessing the visual and tactile characteristics of water to determine its quality and suitability for consumption or other purposes. It involves using senses such as smell, taste, and sight to detect any abnormalities or contaminants in the water.

There are various parameters that are observed during a physical examination of water, some of which include color, turbidity, taste, odor, temperature, and pH levels. These parameters play a significant role in determining the overall quality of the water and its potential health hazards.

Color is one of the first visual characteristics that is observed during a physical examination of water. Clear and colorless water is considered the most desirable, while an abnormal color such as yellow, brown, or green may indicate the presence of pollutants such as industrial waste or algae. In some cases, natural minerals may also cause water to have a slight color, which is usually harmless.

Turbidity refers to the clarity of the water. Clear water with low turbidity indicates that it is free from suspended particles. However, high turbidity could be an indicator of contamination, such as sediments, chemicals, or microorganisms.

During a physical examination of water, taste and odor are also assessed. Water should be tasteless and odorless. Any unusual taste or odor could indicate the presence of pollutants or chemicals such as chlorine, sulfur, or algae.

Temperature is another important factor to consider during a physical examination. Generally, water temperature can be influenced by various factors, including weather, location, and surrounding environment. However, significant changes in temperature may suggest contamination.

pH levels are a measure of the water’s acidity or alkalinity on a scale of 0-14. Neutral water has a pH of 7, and any deviations from this indicate a potential contamination source. Low pH levels suggest acidic water, which could corrode metal pipes and fixtures, while high pH levels indicate alkaline water, which may cause a bitter taste and leave deposits on fixtures.

Aside from these parameters, other physical characteristics that are observed during a water examination include the presence of foam, oil or grease, and debris. Foam on the surface of water could be a sign of organic matter or chemical contamination. Oil or grease may be an indication of industrial or vehicular pollution, while debris such as leaves, twigs, and plastic may suggest poor water management practices.

In conclusion, physical examination of water is a vital step in ensuring the safety and quality of water for consumption or other uses. It helps in identifying potential contamination sources and enables authorities to take necessary actions for water treatment and purification. Regular physical examination of water is crucial to protect public health and maintain the integrity of our water systems.

Chemical Examination of Water

Chemical Examination of Water

Chemical examination of water is a process of analyzing the various chemical components present in a given sample of water. This is an important procedure as it helps to determine the quality of the water and whether it is safe for human consumption or not. It is a crucial step in ensuring that the water is free from harmful substances and meets the necessary standards for its intended use.

The examination starts with collecting a representative sample of water from the source. This could be from a drinking water tap, a river, a lake, or a well. The sample is then transported to a laboratory for testing. There are various tests that can be conducted to examine the chemical composition of water, and the choice of tests depends on the specific requirements and regulations of the area.

Some of the common tests conducted during the chemical examination of water include pH, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, hardness, and the presence of various chemical compounds such as nitrates, chloride, sulfate, and heavy metals.

The pH level of water refers to its acidity or basicity and is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions present in the water. Water with a pH value of 7 is considered neutral, while anything below 7 is considered acidic and above 7 is basic. Drinking water should have a pH value between 6.5 and 8.5 to be safe for consumption.

The total dissolved solids (TDS) test measures the concentration of inorganic and organic substances dissolved in the water. These substances can include minerals, salts, metals, and other compounds. High levels of TDS can make the water taste salty and affect its clarity, making it unsuitable for drinking.

Alkalinity is a measure of the water’s ability to resist changes in pH. It is important to maintain proper alkalinity levels in drinking water, as low alkalinity can cause corrosion of pipes, while high alkalinity can lead to scale formation.

Water hardness is a measure of the concentration of calcium and magnesium salts in the water. Hard water can cause mineral build-up in pipes, decrease the effectiveness of soaps and detergents, and also leave spots on dishes and clothes. The acceptable level of hardness in drinking water is below 150 mg/L.

Nitrates, chlorides, sulfates, and heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, and mercury are some of the harmful chemical compounds that are tested during the examination of water. These substances can be toxic and pose serious health risks if consumed in high levels. It is important to monitor and control the levels of these compounds in water to ensure its safety for human use.

In addition to these tests, there are also specific examinations for various purposes such as checking the levels of disinfectants used to treat the water, testing for the presence of pesticides and organic compounds, and determining the level of fluoride in drinking water.

In conclusion, chemical examination of water is a crucial process in ensuring that the water we consume is safe for use. This analysis helps to identify and control the levels of harmful chemicals and maintain the necessary standards for the quality of drinking water. Regular monitoring and testing of water is necessary to ensure the health and well-being of the people who use it.

Biological Examination of Water

Biological Examination of Water

Biological examination of water is an important aspect of water quality testing. It is done to determine the presence of microorganisms and other biological contaminants in water which can have adverse effects on human health and the environment.

The most common biological contaminants found in water are bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and parasites. These can cause diseases such as cholera, typhoid, dysentery, giardiasis, and cryptosporidiosis. Hence, it is crucial to regularly conduct biological examination of water to ensure its safety for consumption.

There are several methods used for biological examination of water, but the most widely used is the membrane filtration technique. In this method, a sample of water is passed through a membrane filter with a pore size of 0.45 microns. The filter traps the microorganisms present in the water, which can then be incubated in a nutrient media to promote their growth. After incubation, the colonies of bacteria and other microorganisms can be counted and identified.

Another commonly used method is the multiple tube fermentation technique, also known as the most probable number (MPN) method. This method involves inoculating a series of tubes containing nutrient broth with different volumes of water sample. The tubes are then incubated, and the presence of microorganisms is determined by the production of gas within the broth.

Apart from these methods, advanced techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunological assays are also used for biological examination of water. These methods can detect even the smallest amounts of microorganisms and are more rapid and sensitive compared to traditional methods.

The results of the biological examination of water are compared to the set standards and guidelines for drinking water quality. In most countries, the World Health Organization (WHO) sets the standards for safe drinking water. If the water sample exceeds the acceptable levels of microorganisms, appropriate treatment techniques and measures need to be implemented to ensure the safety of the water supply.

In addition to identifying microorganisms, biological examination of water can also indicate the overall health of the water ecosystem. This is because certain microorganisms are indicators of water pollution. For example, the presence of Escherichia coli (E.coli) can indicate the presence of fecal contamination, which is a major source of waterborne diseases.

In conclusion, regular and thorough biological examination of water is essential to ensure the safety of drinking water and maintain a healthy water ecosystem. It also helps in identifying potential sources of contamination and implementing appropriate measures for water treatment and management. As a civil engineer, it is important to be knowledgeable about the methods and techniques used for biological examination of water to ensure that clean and safe water is provided to the community.


In conclusion, the examination of water is crucial for the health and well-being of our communities. Through various tests and analyses, we are able to determine the quality and safety of our water supply. It not only helps us identify potential health risks and contaminants, but it also allows us to take necessary measures to ensure the purity of our water. With the growing concern for environmental pollution and the increasing demand for clean water, it is imperative that we continue to conduct thorough examinations of our water sources. By doing so, we can ensure a sustainable and healthy future for generations to come. Let us all recognize the importance of water examination and work towards preserving and protecting this precious resource.


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