# Introduction of Shuttering

Shuttering is an essential element in the construction industry, providing support and structure to create strong, durable buildings. This versatile technique has been used for centuries, dating back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Greece. However, with modern advancements in technology and construction methods, shuttering has evolved into a highly efficient process, allowing for more complex and innovative designs. In this article, we will delve into the basics of shuttering and its various uses in the construction field, highlighting its importance and impact on the creation of sturdy and well-built structures. From its history to its modern applications, we will explore the world of shuttering and its vital role in the construction industry.

## Requirements of Good Shuttering

Shuttering, also known as formwork, is a temporary structure used in construction to support and contain concrete until it hardens. It is an essential component of the construction process as it ensures the proper shape, alignment, and strength of the concrete structure. However, good shuttering is crucial to ensuring the success of a construction project. In this article, we will discuss the requirements of good shuttering.

1. Strength and Stability:

The primary requirement of good shuttering is strength and stability. Shuttering should be strong enough to withstand the weight of fresh concrete and any other pressure created during the pouring process. It should also be stable enough to resist lateral and vertical movement, ensuring that the concrete maintains its desired shape and strength.

2. Durability:

Shuttering should be able to withstand repeated use, handling, and environmental conditions such as wind, rain, and temperature changes. It should not deform, warp, or break during the pouring process, as this can cause defects in the concrete. Good quality and well-maintained shuttering can be reused multiple times, reducing construction costs.

3. Easy to Assemble and Disassemble:

Shuttering should be easy to assemble and disassemble, without requiring specialized equipment or skills. This is important, especially in large-scale construction projects, where time and labor are critical factors. The formwork should be designed in such a way that it can be quickly and safely removed after the concrete has hardened.

4. Accurate Alignment:

The accuracy of formwork’s alignment is crucial to ensure the structural integrity of the concrete. It should be designed and assembled with precision to produce the desired shape and dimensions of the structure. Any misalignment can cause the concrete to be uneven, leading to structural defects.

5. Impermeability:

Concrete shrinks as it hardens, and this shrinkage can cause water to seep into the formwork, leading to cracks and weak spots in the concrete. Therefore, good shuttering should be impermeable to prevent any water or moisture from entering the concrete, ensuring its strength and durability.

6. Appropriate Material:

The choice of material for shuttering depends on various factors such as cost, availability, and required strength. Wooden formwork is suitable for small-scale residential projects, while steel formwork is more appropriate for large and complex structures that require high strength and durability. Additionally, the type of material used should meet safety standards and should not react with concrete, causing any chemical reactions.

In conclusion, good shuttering is essential for the success of any construction project. It should be strong, stable, durable, easy to assemble and disassemble, and have accurate alignment and impermeability. The choice of material should also be appropriate for the project’s requirements, ensuring the structural integrity and quality of the final concrete structure. Proper care and maintenance of shuttering also play a crucial role in ensuring its efficiency and longevity. As a civil engineer, it is crucial to pay attention to these requirements to ensure the safety and success of construction projects.

## How to Calculate Shuttering Area

Calculating the shuttering area is an important step in the construction process for any civil engineer. Shuttering plays a crucial role in the stability and strength of a structure, making the accurate calculation of its area essential for the successful completion of any project. In this article, we will discuss the step-by-step process of how to calculate shuttering area.

Step 1: Determine the Shape of Shuttering

The first step in calculating the shuttering area is to determine the shape of the shuttering used in the construction. Generally, the shuttering is of rectangular, square, or hexagonal shape. In some cases, it can also be circular or triangular. Once the shape is identified, it will be easier to calculate the area.

Step 2: Calculate the Perimeter of the Shuttering

The next step is to calculate the perimeter of the shuttering. This can be done by measuring the length of each side of the shape and adding them together. For example, if the shuttering is rectangular, the perimeter can be calculated as follows:

Perimeter = 2 x (Length + Breadth)

Similarly, for a square, the perimeter is calculated as:

Perimeter = 4 x Length of one side

Step 3: Determine the Thickness of Shuttering

The thickness of the shuttering is the distance between the inner and outer faces of the formwork. It can vary depending on the type of material used and the requirements of the structure. The thickness is measured in meters or feet and is denoted by ‘t’.

Step 4: Calculate the Area of Shuttering

Once the perimeter and thickness are determined, the next step is to calculate the area using the following formula:

Area of Shuttering = Perimeter x Thickness

Step 5: Add Additional Shuttering Area for Corners and Joints

In addition to the shuttering area, it is also important to consider the corners and joints where the shuttering needs to be overlapped. They can add an extra 5% to 10% of the total shuttering area, depending on the complexity of the structure. Hence, it is important to add this extra area while calculating the shuttering requirement.

Step 6: Calculate the Total Shuttering Area

To determine the total shuttering area required for a specific structure, add the shuttering area calculated in Step 4 and the additional area considered in Step 5.

Total Shuttering Area = Shuttering Area + Additional Corner and Joint Area

For example, if the calculated shuttering area is 50 square meters, and the additional area is 5 square meters, the total shuttering area required will be 55 square meters.

It is important to note that the calculation of the shuttering area is a continuous process as the structure progresses. The area requirements may change as the size and design of the structure are modified, and additional components like beams and columns are added. This may require multiple calculations throughout the construction process.

In conclusion, the calculation of shuttering area is a critical aspect of any project for a civil engineer. It ensures that the correct amount of shuttering material is used, minimizing any wastage or additional cost. By following the simple steps mentioned above, civil engineers can accurately calculate the shuttering area and contribute to the successful completion of the project.

## Calculation of Shuttering Area of a Column

Shuttering refers to temporary formwork that is used to support and shape wet concrete until it hardens and becomes self-supporting. Shuttering is an essential part of the construction process and is particularly important for columns, which are vertical structural elements that provide support for the building above.

The calculation of shuttering area for a column involves determining the required dimensions and the type of formwork needed for the column. The steps involved in this calculation are as follows:

1. Measure the column dimensions: The first step is to measure the width, height, and length of the column. To calculate the shuttering area, all three dimensions must be in the same unit, typically meters or feet.

2. Calculate the surface area of the column: The shuttering area is based on the outer surface area of the column. To calculate this, multiply the width and length of the column, then add the product of this calculation and the height of the column. This will give you the total surface area of the column.

3. Determine the type of formwork: The type of formwork used for a column depends on the shape of the column and the complexity of the design. There are two main types of formwork: vertical formwork, which is used for rectangular or square columns, and curved formwork, which is used for columns with a circular or irregular shape.

4. Calculate the required surface area for the formwork: The required surface area for the formwork is the same as the shuttering area for the column. To calculate this, multiply the surface area of the column by the number of sides that require formwork. For example, a square column will have four sides, so you would multiply the surface area of the column by four.

5. Add an allowance for overlaps and wastage: It is important to add an allowance for overlaps and wastage to ensure that there is enough formwork material to cover the entire column surface. A common rule of thumb is to add an extra 5-10% to the required surface area.

6. Calculate the total shuttering area: The total shuttering area for a column is the sum of the required surface area for the formwork and the added allowance for overlaps and wastage.

In conclusion, the calculation of shuttering area for a column involves measuring the column dimensions, determining the type of formwork, and adding an allowance for overlaps and wastage. Accurately calculating the shuttering area is essential for efficient use of materials and ensuring a successful construction process.

## Calculation of Shuttering Area of a Beam

Shuttering is a temporary formwork used in construction projects to support freshly poured concrete until it reaches its desired strength and can support its own weight. It is an essential part of the construction process, especially when building structural elements such as beams.

Calculating the shuttering area of a beam is crucial for determining the amount of material needed and ensuring that the formwork is strong enough to withstand the weight of the concrete. The following are the steps involved in calculating the shuttering area of a beam.

1. Determine the dimensions of the beam: The first step is to measure the length, width, and height of the beam. These dimensions will be used to calculate the total surface area of the beam.

2. Calculate the total surface area: The total surface area of the beam is calculated by multiplying the length by the width and then adding the area of the four sides of the beam. The area of each side can be calculated by multiplying the width by the height.

3. Determine the area of the bottom face: The bottom face of the beam is the area that will come in contact with the ground or the support structure. Its area is equal to the length multiplied by the width.

4. Calculate the area of the sides and top face: The area of the sides and top face can be calculated by subtracting the area of the bottom face from the total surface area of the beam.

5. Determine the area of the end faces: The end faces are the vertical sides of the beam that will be exposed when the formwork is removed. Their area can be calculated by multiplying the height of the beam by its width.

6. Add all the areas together: Once you have calculated the area of each face, add them together to get the total shuttering area of the beam. This will give you the amount of material needed for the formwork.

It is essential to consider the thickness of the formwork material when calculating the shuttering area. This will ensure that the formwork is strong enough to withstand the weight of the concrete and other stresses that may occur during the construction process.

In addition, it is always recommended to add a small margin (around 5-10%) to the final calculation to account for any errors or wastage during the construction process.

In conclusion, the calculation of shuttering area of a beam is a critical aspect of any construction project. It helps to determine the amount of material needed and ensures that the formwork is strong enough to support the weight of the concrete. By following the above steps, civil engineers can accurately calculate the shuttering area of a beam and ensure a smooth and successful construction process.

## Calculation of Shuttering Area of a Slab

The shuttering area of a slab refers to the total surface area that is covered by the formwork or temporary structure used to support and contain the concrete during the construction of a slab. It is an essential calculation in the planning and execution of slab construction as it determines the amount of material needed for the formwork and also helps in estimating the overall cost of the project.

The calculation of shuttering area of a slab involves several steps which are briefly explained below:

1. Determine the shape of the slab: The first step is to determine the shape of the slab, whether it is rectangular, square, circular, or any other irregular shape. This will help in choosing the appropriate formula for calculating the area.

2. Find the plan dimensions: Measure the plan dimensions of the slab using either a tape or a measuring instrument. For a rectangular or square slab, the length and width should be measured. If the slab is circular, then the diameter should be measured. For irregular shapes, the area can be divided into smaller regular shapes and then added up.

3. Calculate the area of the slab: Once the plan dimensions are known, the area of the slab can be calculated by multiplying the length with the width for rectangular or square slabs, and by applying the appropriate formula for other shapes.

4. Consider the thickness of the slab: The thickness of the slab needs to be considered when calculating the shuttering area. This will depend on the design and load requirements of the slab. The thickness is usually mentioned in the design drawings.

5. Account for the sides of the slab: Every slab has two sides, one for the top surface and one for the bottom surface. The shuttering area should include both sides of the slab. Therefore, the calculated area should be multiplied by 2.

6. Factor in the wastage: A certain amount of wastage is expected during the construction of the slab. This could be due to spillage, trimming, or damages during the removal of formwork. A wastage factor is usually applied to the calculated shuttering area to account for this.

7. Add extra area for joints: In a slab, there will be joints where two formwork pieces meet. To ensure a smooth finish and prevent any seepage of concrete, an extra area of 0.1 sqm is generally added for every linear meter of joint.

8. Calculate the total shuttering area: The total shuttering area of the slab is the sum of all the areas calculated in the previous steps.

In summary, the calculation of shuttering area of a slab involves determining its shape, measurement of plan dimensions, and applying the appropriate formulas along with adding extra areas for joints and wastage. This calculation is crucial in determining the amount of material needed and the overall cost of the project, making it an essential part of the construction process.

## Conclusion

In conclusion, the introduction of shuttering has revolutionized the field of construction. With its versatile and adjustable design, it has made the process of building structures more efficient and cost-effective. Shuttering not only provides support and stability to concrete structures, but also ensures smooth and accurate finishes. Its usage has increased the speed of construction projects, making them more time-efficient. With constant advancements in technology and materials, the future of shuttering looks promising and will continue to play a vital role in the construction industry. From small-scale projects to large-scale buildings, shuttering has proven to be an essential component for successful and durable construction. Its benefits and advantages cannot be ignored and will continue to be a crucial aspect in the field of construction for years to